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Abstract

The intake of certain types of resistant starch (RS) has been associated in some studies with increased whole‐body insulin sensitivity. This randomised, cross‐over pilot trial evaluated the effect of consuming cooked, then chilled potatoes, a source of RS, compared to isoenergetic, carbohydrate (CHO)‐containing control foods, on insulin sensitivity and related markers. Nineteen adults with body mass index 27.0‐39.9 kg m−2 consumed 300 g day−1 RS‐enriched potatoes (approximately two potatoes; ~18 g RS) or CHO‐based control foods, as part of lunch, evening and snack meals, over a 24‐h period. After an overnight fast, insulin sensitivity, CHO metabolism markers, free fatty acids, breath hydrogen levels and appetite were assessed for up to 5 h after the intake of a standard breakfast. The primary endpoint was insulin sensitivity, assessed with the Matsuda index. P < 0.05 (one‐sided) was considered statistically significant. Insulin sensitivity was not significantly different between the potato and control conditions. The potato intervention resulted in higher postprandial breath hydrogen (P = 0.037), lower postprandial free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.039) and lower fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.043) compared to the control condition. Fullness ratings were significantly lower after potato versus control (P = 0.002). No other significant effects were observed; however, there was a trend toward lower fasting insulin (P = 0.077) in the potato versus the control condition. The results of this pilot study suggest RS‐enriched potatoes may have a favourable impact on carbohydrate metabolism and support the view that additional research in a larger study sample is warranted.

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References

  1. Sanders LM, Dicklin MR, Palacios OM, Maki CE, Wilcox ML, Maki KC. Effects of potato resistant starch intake on insulin sensitivity, related metabolic markers and appetite ratings in men and women at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot cross‐over randomised controlled trial. J Hum Nutr. 2020. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12822.
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Abstract

Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium’s many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium’s role in disease prevention and overall health.

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References

  1. Stella Lucia Volpe, Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health, Advances in Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 378S–383S, https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.003483
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