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Abstract

Objective: Short-term studies in adults have shown that white potatoes increase satiety and suppress food intake (FI) compared with several other carbohydrate-containing foods; however, studies are limited in children. The objective was to compare the effects of white potatoes in mixed meals on satiety, FI, and glycemic response in 9-14-year-old children and adolescents. Methods: Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 21 children completed five counter-balanced test sessions. After an overnight fast, children consumed one of four isocaloric treatment meals (450 kcal) of French fries, mashed potatoes, or white beans served with a fixed portion of egg omelet (30 g of protein), a control meal with cereal, milk, and bread, or continued to fast (i.e., meal skipping). Subjective appetite was measured using visual analogue scales. FI at an ad libitum pizza meal at 180 min and rest of day diet record were used to measure lunch FI and rest of day energy intake, respectively. Total daily energy intake was calculated by adding the energy intake from the treatment meal, the ad libitum pizza lunch, and rest of day food record. Capillary blood samples were collected to assess glycemic response over 180 min. Results: Change from baseline subjective average appetite scores were lower after mashed potatoes compared with all other treatment conditions (p < 0.001), and higher after French fries compared with white beans (p = 0.04). Lunch FI (kcal) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) after French fries (1010±73) and mashed potatoes (1039±74) compared with the control meal (1257±92) and meal skipping (1235±74). Total daily energy intake (kcal) was lower after French fries compared with the control meal (2228±141 vs. 2624±137; p = 0.04). Change from baseline blood glucose was lower after white beans and French fries compared with mashed potatoes (p < 0.05) and the control meal (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, white potatoes with eggs increased satiety, decreased short-term FI, and resulted in similar energy intakes compared with meal skipping.

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References

  1. Lee JJ, Brett NR, Chang JT, de Zepetnek JOT, Bellissimo N. Effects of White Potatoes Consumed With Eggs on Satiety, Food Intake, and Glycemic Response in Children and Adolescents. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019;1-8. doi:10.1080/07315724.2019.1620659. [Epub ahead of print]
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Abstract

Vegetables, especially white potatoes, provide significant levels of key nutrients of concern, such as potassium and dietary fiber. Per capita availability (PCA) data for vegetables—often used as a proxy for vegetable consumption—show that vegetable consumption, including consumption of white potatoes, declined in the past decade. Using dietary data for participants in the NHANES 2009–2010, we examined total vegetable, white potato, and French-fried potato consumption among all age-gender groups as well as mean energy, potassium, and dietary fiber intakes. Mean total energy intake for the US population (≥2 y old) was 2080 kcal/d, with white potatoes and French-fried potatoes providing ∼4% and ∼2% of total energy, respectively. Individuals who consumed white potatoes had significantly higher total vegetable and potassium intakes than did nonconsumers. In addition, the proportion of potassium and dietary fiber contributed by white potatoes was higher than the proportion that they contributed to total energy. Among white potato consumers aged 14–18 y, white potatoes provided ∼23% of dietary fiber and ∼20% of potassium but only ∼11% of total energy in the diet. The nutrient-dense white potato may be an effective way to increase total vegetable consumption and potassium and dietary fiber intake.

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References

  1. Maureen L. Storey, Patricia A. Anderson, Contributions of White Vegetables to Nutrient Intake: NHANES 2009–2010, Advances in Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 335S–344S, https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.003541
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Abstract

Dietary carbohydrates have been shown to influence cognitive performance and satiety in children. However, it remains unclear whether the carbohydrate source is a primary determinant of cognitive performance and satiety. The objective was to compare the effects of white potatoes and other carbohydrate-containing foods on cognitive performance, glycemic response, and satiety in children. On six separate mornings, in random order, children (n=22) consumed 50 g of available carbohydrates from microwaved mashed potatoes (prepared from fresh potatoes then frozen), deep-fried potato strips (French fries), hash browns, white rice, white beans, or skipped a meal. Cognitive performance, glycemic response and satiety were measured over 180 min. Cognitive performance was measured using a battery of tests assessing verbal declarative memory, spatial memory, short-term memory, working memory, and information processing speed. Although cognitive performance after the treatment meals did not differ from meal skipping, children recalled more words after French fries (9.1±0.4 words) compared with mashed potatoes (8.2±0.3 words; p<0.001) and white rice (8.4±0.3 words; p=0.04) on the verbal declarative memory test. Blood glucose concentrations were higher after white rice compared with white beans, mashed potatoes, and hash browns (p<0.05). Change from baseline subjective average appetite (mm/kcal) was lowest after mashed potatoes compared with all other treatment meals (p<0.05). In conclusion, verbal declarative memory was higher after French fries and subjective average appetite was lowest after mashed potatoes. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these short-term findings and to elucidate the mechanism of action.

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References

  1. Lee. J. J., Brett, N. R., Wong, V. C., Zepetnek, J. O., Fiocco, A. J., & Bellissimo, N. Effects of Potatoes and Other Carbohydrate-Containing Foods on Cognitive Performance, Glycemic Response, and Satiety in Children. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2019.
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